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                  2019年09月27日 12:14 来源:365bet

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                    Nowadays, quite a few people believe that combatant spirit is essential for one’s success in today’s competitive world. However, some young people today think nothing of this spirit which,in their opinion, is only needed in revolutionary age. Even worse, when facing the difficulties, they will choose to yield or cower without making any efforts.
                    There are many factors resulting in young people’s lack of combatant spirit. Among these, comfortable living environment plays a vital role. Today’s parents provide nearly everything to the children, which results in the children’s lack of motivation for striving on their own. What’s more, the present education system does not pay much attention to help the young people build up the combatant spirit.
                    Considering the importance of combatant spirit, I think it is high time to take effective measures to strengthen young people’s combatant spirit. Above all, parents shouldn’t spoil their children and should ask their children to strive for what they intend to obtain. Moreover, schools should build a better environment for students to develop their struggle and aggressive spirit. Besides, young people themselves should adjust their minds and follow the examples of those people in history or around us who achieve their success under the stimulation of combatant spirit. In a word, it is an urgent thing for today’s young people to enhance combatant spirit.


                    非谓语动词在英语语法中是很重要的一部分,在英语的使用中占着不可忽略的地位,对分析句子结构有着不可低估的作用。下面就简单地谈一下学习非谓语动词的方法。
                    1、非谓语动词的概念
                    要想学好非谓语动词,首先得明白什么是非谓语动词。
                    英语中的动词有很多形式,如动词原形、动词的第三人称单数形式、一般过去式、动词的ing形式、过去分词和动词不定式。后面三种就是非谓语动词。那么非谓语动词,顾名思义就是不作谓语动词的动词。谓语动词在句子中是不可缺少的,时态、语态和语气都要表示在谓语动词上,说明主语的动作或状态。非谓语动词不是谓语动词,仅补充说明句子或句子的某一成分,居于次要地位。也可以这样说,若一个句子有2个或2个以上的动词,从第2个动词开始就要考虑用某种非谓语动词形式或是与前面的动词并列用并列连词连接。如:
                     He likes singing English songs. (划线部分作likes的宾语)
                     She smiled and went away. (划线部分为与smiled并列的谓语动词)
                     2、非谓语动词的意义
                    首先在头脑中明确非谓语动词存在的意义才能实现分析和运用非谓语动词的目的。在句子中用非谓语动词可以简化句子,很多从句和并列的谓语动词都可以用非谓语动词表示出来,使句子结构简短化。如:
                     They walked slowly and talked about their past.
                     =They walked slowly, talking about their past.
                     If he had been given more time, he could have finished the work ahead of time.
                     =Given more time, he could have finished the work ahead of time
                     They wonder how they can overcome the present difficulties.
                    =They wonder how to overcome the present difficulties.
                     在英语中主张能用一个单词表示的就不用短语,能用短语表示的就不用句子,非谓语动词及其短语就能实现替代短语和句子的作用。同时,因为有了非谓语动词,可以在写文章时灵活运用简单句、并列句和复合句,使句子结构富于变化,成就一篇优美的文章。
                    3、非谓语动词的形式
                    粗略地一看,非谓语动词的形式多又杂,使得头脑中一塌糊涂。其实不然,静下心来想一想,能分出这么多的形式一定是有它们存在的道理的。
                     学习非谓语动词的形式和用法必须联系谓语动词的时态和语态,两者在称呼说法上有很多相似之处。过去分词只有一个形式很好记,结合谓语动词的被动语态(be+动词的过去分词)就能记住它表示被动或完成的含义,从而也就记住了其形式(done)。
                     另外两种非谓语动词(动词不定式和v-ing)的形式要多一些,总体上来说,它们的一般主动式就是它们本身的形式(to do sth,和doing sth)。一般被动式就是将它们本身的形式和被动语态的结构结合起来就形成了to be done和being done。它们的完成主动式(to have done sth,和having done sth,)和完成被动式(to have been done和having been done)就结合谓语动词的完成时态和被动语态来掌握。动词不定式还有进行式(to be doing sth)就结合谓语动词的进行时态来学习。至于所有非谓语动词的否定形式基本上都是在它们前面加not就是了。for/of sb,+to do sth是动词不定式的带有逻辑主语的复合结构。v-ing和过去分词复合结构就是在它们前面直接加上名词、人称代词(v-ing做主语、宾语、状语和过去分词做状语时)或形容词性物主代词、名词所有格(v-ing做主语、宾语时)为其逻辑主语,结合词性能作什么成分去分析掌握。
                    4、非谓语动词的含义
                    非谓语动词的每种形式的含义须与其谓语动词发生的先后时间进行比较和参考与其逻辑主语的主动、被动关系。每种非谓语动词有自己的基本含义,如:动词不定式的最基本含义是“将要”,即发生在谓语动词之后。v-ing形式表示“主动、正在进行”,与谓语动词基本上是同时发生或紧接着发生。过去分词(done,仅有这一种形式)表示“被动或完成”,即发生在谓语动词之前,与其逻辑主语是被动关系。
                     但动词不定式和v-lng的各种具体形式又有不同的含义。
                     动词不定式的一般主动式(to do sth)和一般被动式(to be done)是发生在谓语动词之后,与其逻辑主语分别是主动和被动关系;进行式(to be doing sth)是与谓语动词基本上同时发生,与其逻辑主语是主动关系(此种形式没有被动式);完成主动式(to have done sth)和完成被动式(to have been done)是发生在谓语动词之前,与其逻辑主语分别是主动和被动关系。v-ing的一般主动式(doing sth)和一般被动式(being done)是与谓语动词同时或紧接着发生,与其逻辑主语分别是主动和被动关系;完成主动式(having done sth)和完成被动式(being done)是先于谓语动词发生,与其逻辑主语分别是主动和被动关系(v-ing的完成被动式不用作定语,此时用过去分词代替,因为他们的含义是一样的,所有以从简的原则来说用过去分词作定语比v-ing的完成被动式作定语要简单一些)。
                     注意:每种非谓语动词的逻辑主语要从整个句子的意思上和结构上去确定。
                    5、多分析理解非谓语动词的用法
                    在运用非谓语动词的时侯,不仅需考虑它们每种形式的具体含义,还要考虑每种非谓语动词的用法及其固定用法。这就需要学习者不仅要分析学习其基本规律还要积累它们的固定用法和搭配。学习者能耐心细致还要吃苦是非常必要的。非谓语动词具有动词的特点,但在句子中起着名词、形容词、副词等的作用,相应地就可以充当主语、表语、定语、宾语、宾语补足语、状语等的作用。因此在掌握非谓语动词的用法时把它们分别看成相应的词性,也就具有相应词性的一些用法。
                     综上所述,要想学好几种非谓语动词的用法,需要当有心人,平时多做笔记,经常整理笔记,理清思路。然后多做比较,多问为什么。在理解他们的用法之后,最重要的一点是多模仿着运用非谓语动词,都进行从句与非谓语动词的相同含义的句型转换,这样你就能很随意地驾驭各种句型了。


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                    For centuries, Poland has been a bridge between Western and Eastern Europe. Set in the heart of Europe, Poland is a multi-faceted country where the capital Warsaw and medieval towns attract contemporary city slickers; and where horse-drawn carts pass through country lanes, untouched by the progress of the country. Poland is roughly square. It’s bordered by the Baltic Sea to the northwest, by Germany to the west, the Czech and Slovak republics to the south and Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Russia to the east. The flat central belt is the main agricultural area, watered by Poland’s longest river, the Vistula. Like all Poland’s rivers, it runs towards the north, draining into the Baltic Sea.
                     Over the past decade, Poland has developed into a modern, vibrant and progressive country. Yet at the same time it maintains its traditional culture. There are two major cities in Poland you should know about Krakòw and Warsaw. As the royal capital for half a millennium, Krakòw absorbed more of Poland’s history than any other city in the country. As Poland’s most popular tourist destination, as well as an architectural and cultural gem, the city came through WWII unscathed. It has retained a wealth of old architecture from different periods. The tallest structures dominating Krakòw’s skyline are the spires of old churches. Krakòw is a city alive with character and soul. During July every year, there are numerous festivals held in Krakòw, everything from street theatre to jazz.
                     Emerging like a phoenix from the ashes of WWII, Warsaw is essentially a postwar city. Its handful of historic areas have been meticulously reconstructed, but most of its urban landscape is modern. With an intriguing mix of old and new, the capital of Poland grows by leaps and bounds. Warsaw has turned into a thrilling busy city. The Royal Castle in Warsaw was the seat of kings from the 17th century on. Totally destroyed during WWII, the castle was restored to its former beauty during the 1970’s. Now, it is open to the public as a splendid museum.
                     Another museum worthy of mentioning is the war-related Auschwitz Museum. Auschwitz needs no introduction. The museum is a fitting testament to one of humanity’s most deplorable atrocities. Photography is permitted. There’s a small charge to see the 15-minute documentary shown in the Auschwitz cinema. It definitely reminds you of the Polish Jews, whose presence died due to the Hitlerite Holocaust.
                     Over the centuries, Polish kings and magnates erected numerous defensive castles and stately palaces. Turbulent history has reduced many of them into piles of rubble. Some of them, however, have been spared and today carefully restored enchant us with their beauty.
                     Situated in the south of Poland’s harbor city Gdansk, Malbork Castle is reputedly Europe’s largest Gothic castle. It’s one of Poland’s oldest and a splendid example of a classic medieval fortress, with multiple defensive walls, a labyrinth of rooms and chambers and some exquisite architectural detail. In 1997, the castle was included on UNESCO’s World Heritage list. Polish towns reflect the whole spectrum of European styles. Poland’s eastern frontiers mark the boundary of the influences of western architecture on the continent. Still today, you can see well-preserved Medieval, Gothic and Renaissance towns some renowned as the most beautiful in Europe.

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                    “Can I see my baby?” the happy new mother asked. When the bundle was nestled in her arms and she moved the fold of cloth to look upon his little face, she was stunned. The doctor turned quickly and looked out the tall hospital window. The baby had been born without ears. Time proved that the baby’s hearing was perfect. It was only his appearance that was marred. When he rushed home from school one day and flung himself into his mother’s arms, she sighed, knowing that his life was to be a tragic one.
                     He suddenly came out with the tragedy. “A boy, a big boy… called me a freak.” He grew up. He is a favorite with his classmates. He might have been class president if he had a normal appearance. He developed a gift, a talent for literature and music. “But you might mingle with other young people,” his mother sometimes reproved him, but felt a kindness in her heart.
                     The boy’s father had a meeting with their family doctor. Could nothing be done? “I believe I could graft on a pair of outer ears, if it’s possible to get them.” the doctor said. The search began but it was difficult—where to find a person who would make such a sacrifice for a young man? Two years went by. Then, “You are going to the hospital, son. Mother and I found someone who could donate the ears you need. But it’s a secret.” said the father.
                     The operation was a success, and a new person was born. His talents blossomed into genius, and school and college became a series of triumphs. Later he got married and entered the diplomatic service. “But I must know!” He urged his father. “Who gave so much to me? I could never do enough for him.”
                    “I do not believe you could,” said the father, “but the agreement was that you are not to know… not yet.” The years kept their secret, but the day finally came… one of the darkest days that ever passed through a son. He stood with his father over his mother’s coffin. Slowly and tenderly, the father stretched forth a hand and raised the thick, reddish-brown hair to show… that the mother had no outer ears.
                    “Mother said she was glad that she never let her hair be cut,” he said very quietly, “and nobody ever thought mother less beautiful, did they?”
                     Real beauty lies not in the physical appearance, but in the heart. Real treasure lies not in what can be seen, but what cannot be seen. Real love lies not in what is done and known, but in what is done but not known.
                    
                    “我可以看看我的孩子吗?”刚当上妈妈的她幸福地问道。襁褓被递到她怀里。她把一层层的布拨开,看到孩子小小的脸蛋儿时,她呆住了。医生迅速地转过身,从医院高大的窗往外看。这孩子生下来就没有耳朵。但随着时间的流逝,这孩子的听力被证实是十分正常的,只是他的外貌上因此有了瑕疵。有一天,他突然从学校奔回家,一下子冲到妈妈的怀抱里。她叹了口气,深知他的一生将是悲惨的。
                     他说出了这个悲剧。“有个男孩,一个大男孩……他叫我怪胎。”他长大了。他在同学中很受欢迎。如果他相貌如常人一样的话,他可能早就当选为班长了。他在文学和音乐方面特别有天赋。“但你也该学着去和其他年轻人沟通呀。”母亲有时会这样责备他,心里却还是满溢着一股慈爱之情。
                     孩子的父亲约见了他们的家庭医生。难道就无计可施吗?“如果可以顺利找到一对外耳的话,我认为可以给他进行移植。”医生说。于是,他们便开始到处寻找一对合适的耳朵,但谈何容易——到哪里可以找到愿意为一个年轻人作如此牺牲的人呢?两年就这么过去了。然后有一天父亲说:“孩子,你要去一趟医院。你妈妈和我终于找到了一个人,他愿意捐一对耳朵给你。但至于是谁,这是个秘密。”
                    手术很成功,造就了一个崭新的人生。他的才华很快绽放,成为众人眼中的天才,中学和大学的学业一路春风得意。后来,他结了婚,进了外交部门。“可是我得知道!”他催促父亲告诉他捐给他耳朵的人是谁。“到底是谁把这一切带给我的?我对这个人永远都感激不尽,无论我做多少都无以为报。”
                    “我相信这样的恩惠是你永远无法回报的。”他父亲说道,“但我们早就说好了,不可以让你知道那个人是谁……至少现在还不是时候。”于是岁月继续为他们保守着这个秘密。但那一天终于还是到来了。那是对儿子来说一生最难过的日子。他与他的父亲站在母亲的棺椁前。父亲慢慢地、轻轻地伸出手,拨开妻子一头浓密的红棕色头发……那一头秀发下,他们看到,她没有耳朵。
                     “妈妈说过,她很高兴自己从不把头发剪掉。”他平静地说。“也从来没有人觉得妈妈没有以前那么美丽了,不是吗?”
                     真正的美丽不在身形外貌,而是在心。真正的宝藏不在于所见,而在于所不见。真正的爱不在于为人所知的所作所为,而在于不为人知的默默付出。


                    Every year a lot of people are killed or injured in road accidents. How can we make the roads safer? Remember the following traffic rules.
                    When you ride a bike, keep to the right side of the road. Don’t cross the road or turn left at a red traffic light. Give a hand signal if you want to turn or stop.
                    Before crossing the road, stop and look both ways, right and left. If the road is clear, it is safe to cross. The correct way to cross is to walk quickly, but not to run. If you run across the road, you may fall down.
                    If you see small children or old people waiting to cross the road, it is a kind deed to help them to cross in safety. We should teach small children not to play or ride on the roads.
                    Always obey these rules, you’ll find it much safer to walk or ride on the road.

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                    How Big Is the Amazon River?
                    The River Amazon is the second longest river in the world, and the largest in terms of the volume of water it carries to the sea, the area of land that drains into it and the number of tributaries[支流]. The Amazon and its tributaries flow through Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil before emptying into the Atlantic Ocean. The huge watershed[分水岭] includes the largest tropical rainforest in the world as well as areas of dry grassland, or savannah[大草原].
                     How did the Amazon get to be so big?
                    The first reason has to do with its location right on the equator[赤道]. Around the-elt line of the Earth lies a warm, tropical zone where over 1016 centimeters of rain falls every year. That averages out to more than three centimeters of rain, every day! The sheer[完全的] volume of rain in the Amazon jungle, as well as the slope[斜坡] of the surrounding land, combine to create the enormous[巨大的] river known as the Amazon.
                    
                    亚马孙河有多大?
                     亚马孙河的長度在世界上处于第二位,其入海水量、流域面积以及支流数目均居世界首位。亚马孙河及其支流流经秘鲁、玻利维亚、委内瑞拉、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔和巴西,然后流入大西洋。其巨大的分水岭包括世界上最大的热带雨林以及干草原,即南美大草原。 亚马孙河为什么如此之大?
                    原因一是其位置——亚马孙河坐落在赤道之上。在地球这条“腰带”上有一个温暖的热带区,年降雨量超过1016厘米,平均每天就会有3厘米以上的降雨!亚马孙森林的全部雨量与森林附近的坡地合起来就构成了巨大的河流,那就是闻名遐迩的亚马孙河。


                    In the early 2010, the State Council [国务院] appointed[任命] Fu Ying, Chinese ambassador [大使] to Britain, as deputy foreign minister [外交部副部长]. As a result, Fu Ying becomes the second female deputy minister of China’s Foreign Ministry [中国外交部] in history. The former female minister is Wang Hairong. That was nearly half a century ago.
                     Fu Ying is 57 years old now. She is Mongolian. She graduated from English Department of Beijing Foreign Language Studies University. And then she became a postgraduate [硕士] in University of Kent of Britain. Her major was International Relations. She used to be Chinese ambassador to the Philippines, Australia, Britain and other countries.
                     As a diplomat, Fu Ying is unique. She is the first woman ambassador of Chinese ethnic minority. As a diplomat, Fu Ying has received the professional education [专业教育] and she has the complete qualification. It is the peak period [颠峰期] for her to work.
                     Fu Ying likes reading, arts and sport, such as golf and tennis. Her husband, Hao Shiyuan, is an ethnologist [民族学家]. They have a daughter.
                     As a woman, Fu Ying can stand out [脱颖而出] in the diplomatic area, because she is full of various talents[才能]. Although Fu Ying used to be Chinese ambassador to the Philippines and Australia, she came into our sight when she became Chinese ambassador to Great Britain.
                     Especially in 2008, when some “Tibetan Separatists [藏独分子]” flooded into [冲进] Embassy of China in England and interfered [干扰] with the Beijing Olympic Games torch’s relay in London, Fu Ying went to different parts of UK to deliver speeches [发表演讲] and articles [文章]. She used her words to let people know the truth of such incident in Lasa. Her calmness [镇静] and extraordinary performance won admiration from the public.
                     For example, Fu Ying has said, “it is time for the west to know more about China”, “The western media can criticize China, but they should base their criticism on facts.” All these vivid words contain her love for China and have made the west admire her.
                     What Fu Ying has said seems simple, but has expressed her wish that the world could develop in a peaceful and harmonious way.
                    
                    在2010年伊始,国务院任命驻英国大使傅莹担任外交部副部长一职。由此,傅莹成为中国外交部历史上第二名女性副部长。外交部首任女部长是王海容,不过那几乎是半个世纪之前的事情了。
                     现年57岁的傅莹,是蒙古族人,北京外国语大学英语系毕业,英国肯特大学国际关系硕士研究生,曾任中国驻菲律宾、澳大利亚、英国等国大使。
                     作为一名外交家,傅莹是与众不同的。她是中国第一位少数民族女大使。作为一名外交官,傅莹可以说是科班出身、资历完备,正是人生干事创业的颠峰时期。
                     傅莹爱好阅读、艺术,喜欢体育运动,打高尔夫和网球。丈夫郝时远是民族学家。他们有一女儿。
                     在人才济济的中国外交战线上,傅莹作为女性能脱颖而出,自有其过人之处。尽管傅莹曾担任过中国驻菲律宾、澳大利亚大使,但其进入国人的视野还是在驻英国大使任上。
                     尤其是面对2008年,“藏独”分子冲进中国驻英使馆、干扰北京奥运火炬在伦敦传递的逆行,傅莹大使积极奔走英国各界发表演讲和文章,用自己的话揭露拉萨3.14真相、有效反击了“藏独”势力的暴行。其沉着镇静、不同凡响的表现,令人刮目相看。
                     譬如,傅莹所说的“西方是时候更多地了解中国了。”“西方媒体可以批评中国,但至少要言之有据。”这些生动的话语,柔中有刚,蕴涵浓浓爱国情怀,令西方折服。
                     傅莹所说的看似简单,但其实都反映出作为一名外交家的心愿——这个世界能够和平和谐地发展。


                    In our subconscious minds, there is always a perfect vision in which we see ourselves on a long, long journey that almost spans the entire continent. We’re traveling by passenger train and, from the windows, we drink in the passing scene of cars on nearby highways, of children waving at crossings, of cattle grazing in distant hillsides, of smoke pouring from power plants, of row upon row of cotton and corn and wheat, of flatlands and valleys, of mountains and rolling hills, of city skylines and village halls.
                    But our minds are always focused on the final destination—for at a certain hour and on a given day, our train will finally pull into the station with bells ringing, flags waving, and bands playing. And once we get there, so many wonderful dreams will come true. So many wishes will be fulfilled and so many pieces of our lives finally will be neatly fitted together like a completed jigsaw puzzle. So restlessly, we pace the aisles and count the miles, peering ahead, waiting, waiting, waiting for the station.
                    “Yes, when we reach the station, that will be it!” We promise ourselves. “When I’m 18, that will be it! When I buy a new Mercedes Benz, that will be it! When I put the last kid through college, that will be it! When I have paid off the mortgage, that will be it! When I win a promotion, that will be it! When I reach the age of retirement, that will be it!”
                    From that day on we will all live happily ever after.
                    Unfortunately, once we get it, then it disappears. The station somehow hides itself at the end of an endless track.
                    Sooner or later, we must realize there is no station in this life, no one earthly place to arrive at once and for all. The journey is the joy. The station is an illusion—it always outdistances us. Yesterday’s a memory, tomorrow’s a dream. Yesterday’s a fading sunset, tomorrow’s a faint suise. Only today is there light enough to love and live.
                    So, gently close the door on yesterday and then throw the key away. It isn’t the burdens of today that drive men mad, but rather the regret over yesterday and the fear of tomorrow. Regret and fear are twin thieves who would rob us of today.
                    So stop pacing the aisles and counting the miles. Instead, swim more rivers, climb more mountains, kiss more babies, count more stars. Laugh more and cry less. Go barefoot oftener. Eat more ice cream. Ride more merry-go-rounds. Watch more sunsets. Life must be lived as we go along. The station will come soon enough.

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